THE BOXER UPRISING 1899 - 1900.
Now we will discuss the background and events leading to the actual Boxer Uprising during the critical months of May to August 1900.
Before proceeding to describe the series of military events that culminated in the relief of the Foreign Legations in Peking and the occupation of the capital of China by the contingents of the Allied Powers, it may be of interest to discuss the background of the Boxer movement. The real origin of the I-ho-ch'uan, or 'Fists of Patriotic Union', commonly known as the 'Boxers', is difficult to trace, one argument is that it was the outcome of the cession of Kiao-chou to the Germans, and had for its object the defence of the province of Shan-tung against the invasion of the foreigners, others maintain that it is really an old society, which the general state of unrest had brought to life again. Whatever its origin, it is now a matter of history that the obscure society, which in the beginning might have been easily suppressed, grew rapidly into a vast and dangerous association of brigands, which the Government soon found beyond its powers to control.
During many centuries the Chinese empire has been a hotbed of secret societies, of which some were political and anti-dynastic, whilst others are of a more harmless nature, and were originally founded with the object of mutual protection of their members either against the illegal exactions of unjust officials or the depredations of robber bands. One of the oldest societies the Ko-lao-hui 'Elder Brother' society was initially founded for mutual protection of its members, an offshoot of the parent society is the Ta-tao-hui 'Big Knife' society, which has its head-quarters in Ho-nan, and was said to be violently anti-foreign, and especially anti-Catholic.
The Boxer schemed to conceal their real activities and
knowing the aversion of the Government to all secret societies, the
leaders were careful to profess great loyalty towards the Throne, and
adopted as their motto the saying 'Exalt the dynasty and destroy the
foreigners'. Furthermore, they had gained the favour of Yu-hsien, the
anti-foreign Governor of the Shan-tung province, who probably had no
faith in their pretensions to supernatural gifts, but saw a chance of
carrying out his designs against the
Foreigners through the Boxer society.
The Boxers rapidly increased in numbers, and with the objective of pleasing the people, the Boxers declared their aim to be the destruction of the Roman Catholic priests and converts, and their first attack in 1899 was upon a Roman Catholic chapel at Li-lien-yuan, in Shan-tung, where a temple had formerly stood which had been purchased by the Catholics and replaced by a chapel. Attacks by the Boxers were directed against the Catholic converts, many of whom had their houses burnt down and their possessions confiscated. The violence grew, and very soon the Protestant converts shared the same fate as the Catholics; houses burnt and possessions confiscated, while a few were killed, all were 'secondary devils' and only less obnoxious than the pure foreigner.
At first the Boxers confined their operations to Shan-tung, but towards the end of 1899 they spread into the southern part of Chi-li, where the persecution of the Christians also commenced. The foreign Ministers and missionaries had for some time been watching the growth of the Boxer society with some anxiety, when the news reached Peking that an English missionary, Mr. Brooks, had been murdered. The British Minister at once demanded the execution of the murderers, the punishment of the officials concerned and the suppression of the Boxer society, in return the Chinese Government decreed that the two men who actually committed the murder were beheaded; some of the lesser officials were reprimanded; and Yu-hsien, ex-Governor of Shan-tung and head patron of the Boxers, was ordered to Peking, having been succeeded in office by General Yuan Shih-k'ai. In Peking Yu-hsien was received with honour by the Empress-Dowager, and shortly afterwards, being appointed to the Governorship of the neighbouring province of Shan-hsi, where he had ample opportunity of fostering the Boxer movement. An edict was published ordering the suppression of seditious societies, but pointing out that all societies were not harmful. In fact, the whole decree was so worded as to exonerate the Boxers from blame and encourage them to persevere.
The Viceroy of Chi-li, Yu-lu, had recognised the necessity of keeping the Boxers in check, but on the 22nd May 1900, a party of his cavalry was ambushed at Lai-shui and destroyed. Fresh reports were constantly arriving of attacks on Chinese Christians, and the London Mission chapel at Kung-tsun, 40 miles southwest of Peking, was destroyed. On the 19th May 1900, Pere Favier, the Roman Catholic Bishop of Peking, whose experience of the Chinese is unrivalled, and whose sources of information through the Roman Catholic converts are very extensive, reported to the French Minister that he considered the situation to be extremely serious. In the district of Pao-ting-fu numerous Christians had been murdered, and the persecution of converts was daily drawing nearer to Peking.
This new movement was aimed against all Europeans, and not only against the foreign religion, as was clearly stated by the Boxer society. Père Favier further stated that the rising would spread to Peking, where first the churches and then the Legations would be attacked. The city was full of anti-foreign placards and with everyday more were appearing. In fact, the movement was very similar to that of Tien-tsin in 1870 when the same form of threats existed and the same warning were given and disregarded, with most disastrous results. Pere Favier also asked for guards to be sent to protect the Pei-t'ang cathedral, which is the Roman Catholic headquarters in Peking. This warning was communicated by M. Pichon to his colleagues, this information from such a source, was not to be disregarded. The Foreign Ministers accordingly addressed another strong note to the Tsung-li Yamen demanding the suppression of the Boxers and the restoration of order. The Tsung-li Yamen claimed to be taking all means within their power to suppress the rising, and assured the Foreign Ministers that the safety of the Legations would be paramount and in the special care of the Chinese Government, who regarded the Boxers as rebels and outlaws.
Whilst the Tsung-li Yamen was giving these assurances to the foreign Ministers, the Manchu party, notably Kang-yi, was doing all in its power to encourage the Boxers and assure them of the favour of the Empress Dowager.
On the 28th May 1900 the Boxers burnt Feng-tai railway station, and tore up part of the line, which however, was quickly repaired. The Foreign Ministers now considered that the situation in Peking had become critical and telegraphed to Tien-tsin for armed guards for the Legations. These were despatched immediately and 337 men, reached the capital without opposition on the 31st May 1900. At the same time the Boxers had also begun to destroy the railway at Pao-ting-fu, with all of the European railway employees leaving on the 29th May by river for Tien-tsin. They were, however, pursued and attacked by Boxers, and four of their members were killed.
On the 1st June 1900 two English missionaries, Messrs. Robinson and Norman, were attacked at Yung-ch'ing-hsien just 40 miles south of Peking. The Church of England Mission was burnt and Mr. Robinson was pursued and at once cut down, but Mr. Norman, having been taken prisoner, was not murdered till the following day, having in the meantime been subjected to the most inhuman tortures.
In the meanwhile Tung Fu-hsiang's Kan-su troops, who were wild, undisciplined, anti-foreign Mohammedans, who had been taken from the neighbourhood of Peking at the instance of the Foreign Ministers during the winter of 1898-99, were ordered back to the capital and immediately supported the Boxers.
On the 7th June 1900 General Nieh's troops, who had been protecting the railway line from Tien-tsin to Peking, were ordered to return to their camps at Lu-tai, but they remained in the neighbourhood of Yangtsun for several days. All communication between the Legations and the outside world was by this time cut off, and the Boxers were soon openly drilling in Peking itself. During the 9th June, Tung Fu-hsiang's troops entered the capital and with them came hoards of Boxers, who, openly in the uniform of their society, and armed with swords and spears, boldly paraded the streets, declaring that their mission was to exterminate the foreigners. Sir Claude MacDonald the British Minister in Peking wired Admiral Seymour at Taku and requested that he advance on Peking.
On the 11th June the Japanese Chancellor, Mr. Sugiyama, was murdered by Tung Fu-hsiang's troops, whilst on his way to the railway station to greet the expected Seymour relief column, at the Yung-ting man, or south gate of the Chinese city. A tardy decree was published the following day to the effect that the Empress Dowager was grieved at the occurrence, which was the work of outlaws, though it was well known throughout Peking to have been done by regular troops. On the 13th June the Boxers first attacked the Legations, and on the same day commenced with their massacre of Chinese Christians.
By the 16th June 1900 all foreigners and Chinese converts to Christianity in Peking were either in the Legation Quarters or in the Catholic Cathedral Pei-t'ang. On this same day the Boxers set fire to a large area of the Chinese city of Peking, see map of Peking - Figure 1, that housed shops and firms that dealt with foreigners, this fire destroyed over 4,000 businesses. Now on the 19th June the Foreign Ministers received an ultimatum from the Tsung-li Yamen stating that all foreigners had to leave Peking within 24 hours or their safety could no longer be guaranteed. Safe transit to Tien-tsin was offered to all foreigners who were ready to move on the morning of the 20th June.
The Foreign Ministers met and unanimously agreed that they would not move from Peking, In order to delay this ultimatum they sent a letter to the Tsung-li Yamen requesting a meeting on the 20th but received no reply. On the morning of the 20th June the German Minister, Baron von Ketteler, with his interpreter set out for the Tsung-li Yamen in 2 sedan chairs. Having travelled only a short distance from the Legation, Baron von Ketteler's chair was stopped by a member of the Imperial Army who shot the German Minister dead. At 4.00 pm that afternoon the Chinese opened fire on the Legation Quarters, these quarters are shown in plan in Figure 2. The legation was ably defended by the troops who had come up from Tien-tsin under the general command of the British Minister.
During the day of the 23rd June 1900, the Chinese attempted to burn down the Legations by setting fire to the adjacent Halin Academy and the Mongol Market, and although both fires burnt out of control they did not spread to the Legations. In the following days German and US Marines both in separate incidents attacked Manchu Bannermen and Chinese Troops successfully. Early July saw more offensive actions by the Allies, on the 1st July Japanese disrupted Chinese positions beyond Su Wang Fu, on the 3rd July American, British and Russians successfully attacked the Chinese at the Tartar City wall near Ch'en Men. This was followed by a new threat to the Legations, that of Chinese mines, and on the 13th July part of the French Legation was blown up by mines.
Good news, on the 18th July when the Japanese Minister received a message, that had got through Chinese lines, from Tien-tsin stating that 'a combined Allied relief column of about 12,000 men was preparing to march to Peking', this news brought great relief to the Foreign Ministers in the Legation Quarters. Before continuing from here we should go back to Admiral Sir Edward. H. Seymour's attempt to bring a relief column to Peking, see Figure 3.
On the morning of the 9th June 1900, Admiral Sir Edward Seymour, Commander-in-Chief of the British China Station, received Sir Claude MacDonald's wire requesting help, Seymour immediately began organising a relief column and left Taku on the 10th June with a contingent of Royal Marines and Bluejackets for the march to Tien-tsin. Later that morning on arrival in Tie-tsin, Seymour requested of the Governor-general of Chi-li Province Yu lu, that trains be allow for the carrying of his troops from Tien-tsin to Peking. Seymour assembled the relief force at Tien-tsin railway station, the force composed of 111 Americans, 26 Austrians, 915 British, 157 French, 512 German, 42 Italians, 54 Japanese, 312 Russians, with artillery support of 7 field- guns and 10 machine-guns. Each of the 5 trains were equipped by Seymour with a defence platform of infantrymen and machine-guns directly in front of the engine, following the engine were passenger cars with troops, then freight cars loaded with artillery and ammunition, supplies, rations and a car loaded with spare rail, ties, and tools for making track repairs.
Admiral Seymour had planned to be in Peking by the end of that day, 10th June 1900, so he only loaded 3 days of rations, the trains proceeded towards Yangtsun were they encountered badly damaged tracks, the rest of the day was spent repairing the railway line, thus only 25 of the 100 miles were completed. On the morning of the 11th June they started off again and by nightfall the trains had reached Langfang about 40 miles from Peking. Here they found a group of Boxers destroying the railway track, the Boxers were attacked and dispersed then track repairs commenced again. A reconnaissance force was sent ahead whilst the track was being repaired, they made some 10 miles along the track to An-ting were they met strong Boxer resistance. Seymour now found that his supplies for repairing the track and his rations were running low so he dispatched one of the trains back to Tien-tsin to renew these supplies, unfortunately the train only made it as far as Yangtsun were it met heavy Boxer activity and found that the track between Yangtsun and Tien-tsin had been effectively destroyed, this train returned to Langfang on the 15th June.
Seymour now decided on a slow retreat by train from Langfang to Yangtsun, and on the 18th June 1900 German Cavalry scouts reported that they had met resistance from combined Chinese Imperial troops and Boxers, this indeed was bad news for Seymour. On the 19th June 1900, the trains reached the river close to Yangtsun, but the bridge crossing had been badly damaged and was unsafe to cross. All of the troops detrained and commenced the march to Tien-tsin along the banks of the Pei Ho (river); they managed to capture some junks and loaded these with the wounded, the artillery and supplies. Due to the low water levels in the river the junks kept running aground, thus the artillery had to be cast overboard in order to keep the junks afloat. After 3 days of slow progress towards Tien-tsin, on 22nd June 1900, the relief force came upon a building lightly guarded by Chinese troops, after attacking this building it was found that it was a Government building the Imperial Chinese Arsenal at Hsi-ku, inside were supplies of food, water, arms and ammunition, it was here that Seymour decided they would camp and await help from Tien-tsin. It was not until the 26th June that they were rescued with the arrival of a force of Russian Cossacks, thus the first attempt to relieve Peking had ended in disaster.
Whilst the situation at Peking was becoming critical other towns in Chi-li province were a cause for concern, the Chinese section of Tien-tsin had been taken by the Boxers and the Legations their were under threat, as were the railway towns of Tong-shan, Pei-tai-ho and Shan-hai-kuan. It was learnt by Rear-Admiral Bruce that Chinese troops were heading to Tang-ku and the Taku forts, a council of international naval commanders was called on 14th June and again on the 16th June, and a decision was made to occupy the Taku forts, the British Commander C. Cradock of H.M.S. Alacrity took ashore a landing party made up from all of the nations present 321 British, 244 Japanese, 159 Russians, 133 Germans, 25 Italians and 22 Austrians, some 904 officers (35) and men (869). They advanced at night with half of the British, Japanese, Germans and Italians in the front line, with the remaining British, Russians and Austrians bringing up the rear. The ships bombarded the forts from the Pei-ho, see Figure 4 for a plan of this attack, but little damage was done in the dark, at dawn Cradock got his troops under cover and the forts were again bombarded by the ships from the river and by 4.30 am the guns of the fort were silenced. The attack on the North-West Fort was resumed; the final charge was sounded upon which the Japanese raced the British for the West Gate the two nations scaling the defences together. Commander Hattori, of the Japanese Navy, was one of the first up the parapet and upon turning to assist Commander Cradock was shot dead, the gate of the inner fort was soon forced open and this attack completed.
The North Fort was next attacked, but met with very little resistance. Now the ships in the Pei-ho turned their attention to the South Fort on the opposite bank, but met with considerable artillery fire from the Chinese and it was here that the British suffered casualties amounting to 1 man killed with 2 officers and 13 men wounded. Still the attack on the South Fort was successful and by 7.10 am the firing from the ships was stopped and occupation of the fort commenced. Whilst this attack was going on Lieutenant Keyes in command of H.M.S. Fame boarded 4 Chinese Torpedo-boat Destroyers at port between Taku and Tang-ku. The North-West Fort was occupied by the British, the North fort by the Japanese and the South Fort by the Germans and Russians; with this the occupation of Taku was complete.
On the 16th June the Boxers made their first attacks on the Tien-tsin settlements, on the 17th the Boxers again bombarded the settlements from the Chinese city, and on the 18th it was found that all rail communication with other towns had been cut off, but the settlement in Tien-tsin was now under continual daily if somewhat spasmodic attack, Tien-tsin now had some 10,000 Chinese including Imperial Army troops against the settlement defences of only 2,400 men. In response to these situations in Peking, Tien-tsin and the other towns the Foreign Powers had commenced to dispatch troops to China, on the 6th June Seymour had requested that British troops be sent from Hong Kong, on the 10th June the French had sent 600 marines and 400 seamen from Marseilles, on the 11th the Russians landed 1,746 men with artillery, cavalry and transport, at Taku, on the 18th the Russian landed a further 1,200 men at Taku, on the 21st H.M.S. Terrible arrived from Hong Kong with 382 officers and men.
On the 21st June Major-General Stessel commanding a strong detachment of Russians, Americans and Italians headed for Tien-tsin, and later in that day a further detachment led by Commander Cradock left for Tien-tsin, then on the 22nd a detachment under Major Morris left Taku, then Lieutenant-Colonel Bower left with a detachment by rail.
All of these groups meeting up at the railhead some 10 miles from Tien-tsin. At daybreak on the 23rd June 1900 these forces, less the group led by Bower, advanced toward Tien-tsin with the Russians moving along the railway and to the right, and the British, American and Italians moving to the left, then within 6 miles of Tien-tsin they met heavy Chinese resistance and came under heavy fire. But the attack moved steadily forward until the last bridge was reached before entering the settlement and it was here that they met the most resistance but with the use of American field-guns, the bridge and the entry to the settlement and Tien-tsin, see plan of Tien-tsin in Figure 5, was won.
Now it was learnt that Seymour was held up in the Hsi-ku Armoury, and on the 25th June 1900 a force under Colonel Shirinsky of 1,000 Russians and 600 British troops reached the Armoury and escorted Seymour and his men back to Tien-tsin. Also on the 25th H.M.S. Terrible had moved up river and was now able to bombard and silence the guns of the Chinese city, whilst back at Taku H.M.S. Fame had captured the Hsin-ch'eng Fort. The relief of Tien-tsin was now complete, and communication from the city to the sea permanently restored by the international force that now numbered some 12,000 men, made up of 3,752 Japanese, 3,735 Russian, 2,300 British, 1,340 German, 421 French, 335 American, 138 Italian and 26 Austrian.
Now back to the relief of the Foreign Legations at Peking, the last communication from Peking to Tien-tsin was some three weeks ago, and it was learnt that the Legation were under constant bombardments and that they were only just holding out, then came a rumour that their had been a massacre in Peking. The international force in Tien-tsin were not in agreement about the timing for an advance on Peking, in Europe the German Kaiser named as Commander-in-Chief of the international force General Albrecht Graf von Waldersee who sailed from Germany in early August, in the meantime the British leader General Gaselee in Tien-tsin was in favour of moving quickly and before the rainy season got underway.
Another problem was the depleted size of the force, General Gaselee was expected to arrive with 10,000 British troops but came with only 6,000, the Japanese under Lieutenant-General Yamaguchi said the force was too small but that Japan would make up the shortfall in British numbers by providing 10,000 troops, the Americans wished to await the arrival of artillery that was on its way to Taku, whilst the Russians were preoccupied with conditions in Manchuria. On the 1st August 1900 Lieutenant-General Linievitch took command of the Russian forces from General Stessel, he asked for two days to assess the position then agreed on an early move to Peking. The forward position of the international force was at the Armoury at Hsi-ku, and it was from here on the 30th July reconnaissance of the forward positions took place. A Japanese force under Yamaguchi went north as far as Hung-ch'iao, see map Figure 6, were they left two battalions, then they moved parallel to the river to Ting-tzu-ku, then beyond that found the main Chinese position at Mun-chia-chuang on the opposite bank of the river, it was now obvious that the Chinese were very strong around the area of Pei-ts'ang.
It was decided to attack the Chinese positions on the 5th August and to advance to Yang-tsun from where the roads, railway and river went to directly to Peking. The planned allied force that would go to Peking was of approximately 20,100 men, made up from 10,000 Japanese, 4,000 Russian, 3,000 British, 2,000 American, 800 French, 200 German, and about 100 Italians and Austrians. The first plan of attack was to secure the positions at Pei-ts'ang, this was to be accomplished by an attack with Japanese, British and U.S. troops operating on the right bank of the Pei-ho, whilst the remainder of the force threatened the left river bank. The attack commenced at night to try to avoid the heat of the day, the Japanese soon captured Kan-chia-ju and Liu-chia-pei, then after heavy fighting captured Tang-chia-wan. By 8.30 am the Chinese started retreating to Pei-ts'ang, then further in the direction of Yangtsun, therefore it was decided to halt at Pei-ts'ang for the night.
On the 6th August the march to Yangtsun was started at 6.00 am, by 10.00 am the village of Hsin-chuang was reached, this village was just 3 miles south of the railway bridge that crossed the Pei-ho near Yangtsun, and from here the Chinese positions could be observed. This battle was mainly fought by the British and Americans, who came under very heavy fire but continued forward to take the enemy positions, and see the Chinese retreat back towards Yangtsun and Peking. The Japanese forces were to the extreme right of this battle and were able to march straight on to Yangtsun unopposed and entered the town at 2.30 pm. On the 7th August the complete international force halted for the complete day in Yangtsun.
It was on the 8th August that the Japanese, American and British troops moved forward, the Russians delayed awaiting supplies, and the French remained to garrison Yangtsun. The march was quite short due to the intense heat and the army's camped at Nan-tsai-tsun, Junks with artillery and supplies arrived during the day and the Russians arrived during the evening. During the day a Christian messenger arrived with a cipher message from Sir Claude Macdonald to General Gaselee recommending him to attack Peking from the south and enter the Tartar City via the Sluice Gate under the wall and to the south of the Legation Quarter, the messenger also informed them that the Legations were still holding out and had provisions that would last until the 16th August.
On the 9th August the march started at 7.00 am, progress was very slow due to stifling dust, then intense heat, and the need to check ahead all of the time, the distance gained was only 11 miles to the village of Ho-hsi-wu were the British and Americans camped, here two companies of French troops joined them for the entry into Peking. The Japanese continued on to Mu-chang continuing to drive the Chinese back towards Peking. On the 11th all forced advanced to Chang-chia-wan. On the 12th the Japanese moved in the early morning followed by the rest of the troops during the day, The Japanese took and occupied Tung-chou and it was here that the entire force rested for the day and also the following day, whilst reconnaissance groups headed towards Peking to find the strength of the Chinese troops and Boxers.
During the night of the 13th / 14th August heavy firing was heard from the direction of Peking, the British troops hearing this, thought that the Legations might be under fire, and left Tung-chou at 2.00 am and marched towards Peking, only to find that the firing had been from the Russians who had got out of position and had marched on the Tung-pien men (gate), this position was allotted to the Americans, and were unable to enter the Tartar City due to very heavy firing from the Tartar Wall, the Russians then retired to the suburbs. By 9.00 am the Japanese were in position at Chih-ho men and Tung-chih men, 54 guns were brought into position to fire into these two gates and the wall between them. The Americans arrived at Tung-pien men at 12.30 pm and soon had broken through this gate into the Chinese City, at roughly the same time the British arrived at Sha-huo men, this gate was practically without defence and was quickly broken down then by 3.00 pm the defence to and of the Sluice Gate had been overcome and the Legation Quarters entered to a large reception from those trapped within.
By the evening of the 14th August 1900 all of the international forces had reached their respective Legation via the Sluice Gate. On the 15th August a conference of the General Officers was held to arrange the disposition of occupation of the city by the international force and also to plan for the relief of the Pei-t'ang Cathedral still under siege from the Chinese Boxers. On the 16th August the Cathedral was again in safe hands, the small force that had defended the Cathedral against all odds were to be congratulated for saving the lives of 2,500 nuns and native converts as well as the priests that had stood alongside the fighting force. So now the occupation of Peking was practically complete.
The relief of the Peking Legations and the Pei-t'ang Cathedral did not signal the end of the campaign against the Boxers, these continued throughout September and into October in various of the northern Chinese cities and towns.
Thus the International Force led by General Alfred Gaselee quickly and badly defeated the Boxers and Chinese Imperial Army; there had been no popular Chinese support for the Boxers, who were poorly equipped and trained for war, especially against the might of the leading international army's. Following the taking of Peking troops from the international force, except British and American, looted the capital city and even ransacked the Forbidden City, with many Chinese treasures finding their way back to Europe. During this late period of the Uprising the empress dowager Tz'u Hsi fled from Peking to Sian, and although she returned to Peking one year later the power of the Ch'ing dynasty had been destroyed forever. Knowing that armed resistance to the foreign powers (who forces where now garrisoned in Northern China) was useless the empress dowager called Li Hung-chang to Peking in an attempt to reach a settlement with the foreigners. After much negotiation a peace was finally established and a protocol was signed on the 7th September 1901 between China and the Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Spain, United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, and Russia.
This protocol, known as the Boxer Protocol, contain the following main terms:
a) That China agreed to pay the powers an indemnity
of 450,000,000 of Haikwan taels, this
constituted a gold debt calculated at the rate of the Haikwan tael to the gold currency of
each country (this equalled 335 million gold dollars US), and bearing an interest rate of
4% per annum and shall be reimbursed by China over a period of 39 years, the interest
was to be paid semi-annually with the first payment being the 1st July 1902.
b) China agreed to prohibit the importation of arms
and ammunitions, as well as materials
for the production of arms or ammunitions for a period of 2 years, this could be extended
to a further terms of 2 years as the Powers saw necessary.
c) The Chinese Government agreed to the destruction of the Forts at Taku.
d) The Chinese Government conceded the right to the
Powers to occupy certain places as
listed; Huang-tsun, Lang-fang, Yang-tsun, Tien-tsin, Chun-liang-Cheng, Tong-ku, Lu-tai,
Tong-shan, Lan-chou, Chang-li, Chin-wang Tao, Shan-hai Kuan.
e) The Chinese Government has agreed that the Legation
Quarters occupied by the Powers
shall be considered as a special area reserved for their use under exclusive control, in
which Chinese shall not have the right to reside, and which may be defensible, China
recognised the right of each Power to maintain a permanent guard in the said Quarters for
the defensive of its Legation.
f) Boxer and Government officials were to be punished
for crimes or attempted crimes
against the foreign Governments or their nationals.
Tsa-li, Prince Tuan, Tsai-Lan, Duke Fu-kuo, was sentenced to execution or
deportation to Turkestan and imprisoned for life.
Tsai Hsun, Prince Chuang, Ying-Nien, Chao-chiao, were sentenced to commit suicide.
Yu Hsun, Chi Hsiu, Hsu Cheng-yu, was condemned to death.
Posthumous degradation was inflicted on Kang Yi, Hsu Tang, Li Ping-heng.
g) The Chinese Government was to prohibit forever,
under the pain of death, membership
in any anti-foreign society, Civil service examinations to be suspended for 5 years in all
areas where foreigners were massacred or subjected to cruel treatment, Provincial and
Local officials would personably be held responsible for any new anti-foreign incidents.
h) His Majesty the Emperor of China conveys his regrets
to His Majesty the German
Emperor for the assassination of his Excellency the late Baron von Ketteler, German
i) His Majesty the Emperor of China appoints Na't'ung
to be his Envoy Extraordinary and
directs him to convey to his Majesty the Emperor of Japan, his expression of regrets and
that of his Government at the assassination of Mr. Sugiyama.
j) The Chinese Government stated that it would erect
on the spot of the assassination of his
Excellency the late Baron von Ketteler a commemorative arch inscribed in Latin,
German and Chinese languages.
With the conclusion of the Boxer Protocol, China's national rights were further violated, in that the terms of the protocol interfered with China's internal administration and also her national defences. In the general Chinese society suffering and discontent increased when the Quing Government raised taxes to pay for the heavy indemnity imposed. This large indemnity had a harmful effect on financial conditions and obstructed the economic growth of China, as large amounts of money flowed out from the country to the foreign Powers. The sum total that China had to pay, as a result of the Boxer Protocol, over the next 39 years with the added interest was over 900,000,000 taels.
The Boxer Uprising was a blow to China's world prestige, especially after coming so quickly upon her defeat by Japan in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5, which had placed her as being second amongst the Asian powers. The Boxer Uprising was also a major cause in the eventual fall of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912. For the Allies it was a different story, giving them all a foot into northern China and access to natural resources. The strong competition at this time between the Japanese and Russians was a guide to what was yet to come in less than four years on, The Russo-Japanese War, the outcome of which would further enhance Japan's dominance in the Far East.
Kenneth G. Clark